Since the formation of the Transjordanian emirate in 1921, the state's army, the Arab Legion, had always been commanded by a British officer. As in other parts of the empire, British power ultimately rested on a collaborative equation with local elements. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. A pro-Axis coup erupted in Iraq in April 1941, headed by Rashid Ali al-Kaylani, aided by Italian and Nazi agents and by the ex-mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin alHusayni. Hardly anywhere did direct rule by a British administration survive intact until after World War II. But with their reduced purchasing power following the collapse of the oil cartel, the Middle East oil producers no longer offered such abundant markets. How did the Second World War affect French and British interests in the Middle East izleyin - dm_df89bc4d93d79f6ecf76f2a957fba565 Dailymotion'da Elsewhere, Soviet influence was exercised by propaganda and subversion rather than direct military intervention. May 14 2020 . Under the Truman Doctrine, enunciated in 1947, the United States replaced Britain as the main provider of military and economic assistance to Greece and Turkey. British military and political weakness was damagingly demonstrated to the world by the collapse of the British mandate in Palestine. The Labour Government's foreign secretary, Ernest Bevin, adopted an anti-Zionist position, which at times tipped over the edge into antisemitism; his undiplomatic outspokenness secured applause from frustrated officials but was bitterly resented by many Jews. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/britain-and-middle-east-1914-present, Independence and Decolonization, Middle East. In March 1956, responding to external and internal political pressures, he dismissed the British commander of his army, Sir John Bagot Glubb. Although the writing was on the wall for what remained of British power in the Middle East, there was no complete pullout yet. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. Libya became independent in December 1951, though Britain was granted the right under the Anglo–Libyan Alliance Treaty of 1953 to maintain military installations there. Rebellion in Egypt in 1919 was repressed by Allenby with a dexterous mixture of force and diplomacy. Meanwhile, British diplomats throughout the Arab Middle East reported that the Palestine question had become a central mobilizing issue for Arab nationalists and anti-British agitators. The British share in this consortium was reduced to under a half, with the remainder held mainly by U.S. companies. Part of Springer Nature. While commanding the Arab Legion he had routinely supplied the British government with secret copies of Jordan's war plans. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. It established a large air base in Saudi Arabia, built the Trans-Arabian Pipeline, and became the major external source of arms and other aid. arab revolt (1916); Except for the rather banal generalization that perceived British national interests have always been the primary propellant behind Great Britain’s policies throughout the Middle East, this anthology, because of its varied foci, does not really lend itself to sweeping conclusions. The foreign, colonial, India, and war offices all held responsibility at certain periods for different parts of the region. There was also conflict with Britain over the Sudan, which was ruled by Britain though it was formally an Anglo–Egyptian condominium; the Egyptian government now sought to annex the country to Egypt. 12 1 Comments Print Email Kindle. Following the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, Britain joined the USSR in occupying Iran. Pressure from the Egyptian government for a British evacuation of the Suez Canal zone, therefore, encountered stiff resistance. The axis of Britain's Middle Eastern empire stretched from the Suez Canal to the Persian Gulf. middle east supply center (mesc); The British conceded control of Syria and Lebanon to their erstwhile ally. The myth was of a natural affinity between the British Empire and Arab desert warriors. The pro-British Jordanian monarchy survived, but Britain lost its bases in Iraq as well as its oil interests there. The gunshots were fired by a Libyan diplomat from within the embassy. The British nevertheless brought in new forces, which advanced to conquer Baghdad by March 1917. Encyclopedia.com. Shortly afterward, an Iranian army coup, engineered by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency with British help, overthrew Mossadegh and brought about the return of the Shah. The parade fitted into larger British schemes. Searight, Sarah. Born March 9, 1881 The Middle East and its intriguing connections to British History the roots of so many problems run deep into the past of our history and Britain with its vast Empire has had more than its measure of meddling in his particular region. As Britain's oil production grew, it was able to play a major role in weakening and ultimately destroying the effectiveness of OPEC. With the liquidation of the base at Aden, Britain expanded its military presence in Bahrain and other Gulf principalities. The agreement mapped out a scenario for war with Egypt. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Persia lay between them, until in 1860 there was an agreement to divide the staffing of posts. Privately, Bevin encouraged the government of Transjordan to reach a modus vivendi with the Zionists on the basis of a different kind of partition, one in which the Transjordanians would take over the Arab-inhabited hill regions of the country and coexist with a Jewish state in the rest of Palestine. As the revived Turkish army advanced on Constantinople, British and French forces, in occupation of the city, prepared to resist. In July 1958, the Jordanian regime was severely shaken by the revolution in Iraq, in which the Hashimite regime was ousted and the young King Faisal II ibn Ghazi and the pro-British Prime Minister Nuri al-Saʿid were both murdered. Not logged in Darwin, John. In March 1921, Churchill, then colonial secretary, convened a conference in Cairo of British officials in the region. In Aden in the mid-1960s, British forces conducted a miserable campaign against nationalist insurgents supported by Egypt. The powerful Italian broadcasting station on the island of Bari began broadcasting anti-British propaganda to the Middle East. Upon the outbreak of war with Israel in June 1967, Nasser closed the canal to all shipping; it did not open again until 1975. In February 1942, British tanks surrounded the royal palace as a weeping King Farouk was forced by ultimatum to appoint a prime minister acceptable to the British, Mustafa al-Nahhas, head of the Wafd party. Asked by Wiki User. Thereafter, the British strategic position in the region eased. Second, the British requested and received permission from Israel to overfly Israeli territory in order to transport troops from bases on Cyprus. anglo–iranian oil company; Broadly speaking, the foreign office was responsible for Egypt, the India office for the Persian Gulf, and the colonial office (from 1921) for the mandates in Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq. In March 1970, the revolutionary government in Libya, headed by Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi who had attended an officers' training school in Britain, ejected the British from their bases in the country. Although Britain had interests throughout the Middle East, she did not directly make a colonial settlement in any part of it. Although the country had been granted independence in 1946, it remained under British tutelage. London: Faber and Faber, 1973. The Chatham House Version, and Other Middle Eastern Essays. Watch it now, on The Great Courses Plus. abbas hilmi ii; In the age of Gordon and Kitchener, Middle East empire building had a jingoistic tinge, but after 1914 this tendency disappeared. Thanks and Dedications i First, I thank God for his help and Guidance. "Britain and the Middle East from 1914 to the Present It negotiated with the Sheikhs of the Gulf and with Aden, and kept a Resident in Lower Mesopotamia until 1932. They spoke darkly of "a new Fashoda" and vigorously asserted their territorial demands in the Levant and Anatolia. ." Unlike most other parts of the former British Empire, the imperial language did not survive into the post-colonial era in the Middle East as the primary means of communication. Government departments in Cairo began burning secret documents, and emergency evacuation plans were prepared. It nevertheless found itself drawn into new responsibilities. Download preview PDF. Its mainly British clergy in the Middle East was gradually replaced at all levels by indigenous priests. The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observe… But no other country was prepared to join in the effort, and the idea was dropped. Neither country had a…, Great Britain, officially United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutional monarchy (2011 pop. Indian priorities also lay behind British officials' anxiety about the inflammatory threat, as they saw it, of growing pan-Islamic feeling on the large Muslim minority in India. During the 1970s and 1980s, they moved toward vertical integration of the industry, nationalizing the extraction installations, establishing refineries and petrochemical industries, investing in their own transportation of products by tanker or pipeline, and creating their own marketing mechanisms. On the Egypt–Palestine front, Turkish raids on the Suez Canal led to British occupation of the Sinai Peninsula. palestine arab revolt (1936–1939); . Two aspects of this intervention, code-named Operation Fortitude, illustrated the changed political environment within which the British, perforce, now operated. Thousands fled overseas. The Baghdad Pact of 1955 represented a final attempt by the western powers, with the United States by this time playing the leading role, to create a regional framework under their auspices. The core of the scheme was a multilateral military aid treaty signed by Britain, Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan, with the United States acting as an interested outside party. In Search of Arab Unity. Only in 1984 was the British commander in chief of the country's armed forces replaced by an Omani. Faisal arrived in British-controlled Palestine as a refugee with a large entourage. But in April 1916 General Charles Townshend's Sixth Division was forced to surrender at Kut al-Amara. Philby of Arabia. More than anything, official thinking was predicated on concern about India—specifically, about the security of routes to the subcontinent and the Far East and the possible effects of Middle East developments on internal security in India. Britain entered into more specific obligations to other allies. Monroe, Elizabeth. Protecting North Africa and the Middle East A quick tally of publishe… There were also attacks on several Israeli and Zionist targets in Britain, as well as on Jewish institutions that had nothing to do with Israel. On the other hand, they could not permit Abdullah to drag them into a war with the French. Other such proposals met similar fates. As long as the various American interests in the region were allowed to function and prosper, Washington was satisfied. This is a preview of subscription content, Roger Owen, ‘The influence of Lord Cromer’s Indian experience on British policy in Egypt, 1883–1907’, in, Elie Kedourie, ‘Sa’ad Zaghlul and the British’, in, Britain and France in the Middle East and North Africa, 1914–1967, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-15279-7_4. Revolt in Iraq in 1920 was put down by General Arnold T. Wilson with an iron fist. The British did not seek conflict with the Turks, seeing it as a diversion from the primary task of defeating Germany; they nevertheless moved quickly both to confront Turkey in the battlefield and to plan postwar dispensation in the Middle East. The battle in the western desert swung to and fro. At the height of the crisis in 1953, the Shah, who strongly opposed Mossadegh, fled the country. The Middle East region has long attracted and continues to attract very high levels of interest among scholars and policy-makers. Eight thousand British troops were sent to Kuwait and remained there as a deterrent against Iraqi invasion until 1963. Independence in Iraq was followed by the mass killing of members of the Nestorian Christian community, known as Assyrians. During the war, large reserves of oil in the Arabian Peninsula had come onstream. With the growth of motor transport and the switch from coal to oil as the main industrial fuel, Britain had become overwhelmingly reliant on the importation of Middle East oil carried through the canal in tankers. middle east defense organization (medo); New York: St. Martin's, 1981. The Labour Party, a small part of the Conservative party, some foreign office officials, and most enlightened opinion were hostile to Eden's policy. Also in 1971, British forces left Abu Dhabi, whereupon the seven Trucial Coast shaykhdoms formed the federation of the United Arab Emirates. In Mesopotamia, too, the British were humiliated. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993. London, England Several OPEC members, desperate for revenues to sustain their commitments to large expenditures on armaments or social programs, broke cartel discipline and secretly sold at lower prices. Conspiratorial discussions among representatives of the three countries at a villa in the Paris suburb of Sèvres from 22 to 24 October culminated in a secret treaty. Unlike other parts of the empire—notably, regions of white settlement—Middle East imperialism had no significant popular constituency in Britain. world war i; world war ii. The Italian dictator wooed Ibn Saʿud and other Middle Eastern rulers and gave covert support to anti-British elements in the region, including the anti-British leader of the Palestine Arab nationalist movement, Hajj Amin al-Husayni. bevin, ernest; While Abdullah formally ruled the country, the British resident and a small number of other officials discreetly steered policy in directions compatible with British interests. Yet by a mixture of diplomacy, guile, and occasional demonstrative concentrations of force, they succeeded in averting serious challenge from nationalist opponents. What were Britain's interests in the Middle East and how did this conflict with the Ottoman Empire? The next flashpoint was Jordan. Yet after 1945, British dominance quickly crumbled, leaving few relics of any kind. Now, the United States became the dominant external diplomatic power, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The British and French would then enter the conflict, ostensibly to secure the Suez Canal, in fact to destroy Nasser's regime. During World War II, the Middle East played a vital part in British strategic calculations. The Paris Peace Conference did not, in fact, achieve a resolution of territorial issues in the Middle East. United States foreign policy in the Middle East has its roots in the 18th century Barbary Wars in the first years of the United States of America's existence, but became much more expansive in the aftermath of World War II.American policy during the Cold War tried to prevent Soviet Union influence by supporting anti-communist regimes and backing Israel against Soviet-sponsored Arab countries. The international ramifications of the Palestine conflict created serious difficulties for the British between 1945 and 1948. atatÜrk, mustafa kemal; The British remained vitally interested in free passage through the Suez Canal. No Arab state apart from Iraq could be induced to join the pact, and Egypt, in particular, opposed it vigorously. Economic planning and supply questions for the entire region were coordinated by the Middle East Supply Center in Cairo. Warning against direct British administration of the tribal hinterland of Aden colony, Cranborne added: "We must keep steadily in front of us the aim of establishing in Aden protectorate a group of efficient Arab authorities who will conduct their own administration under the general guidance and protection of His Majesty's government." King Abdullah, Britain, and the Making of Jordan. Simultaneous secret agreements among the Allies provided for an additional carve-up of much of what remained of Turkish Anatolia. Later Arab claims made much of alleged promises made in correspondence in 1915–1916 between the British high commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, and Sharif Husayn, though the exchanges were vague and inconclusive on both sides and never resulted in a formal treaty. In effect, Britain ruled the mandated territories as if they were colonies, though here too they sought to establish limited local self-government. The following month, British and Free French forces, operating from Palestine, advanced into Syria and Lebanon and installed new French administrations sympathetic to the Allied cause. The independence granted to Egypt in 1922 and Iraq in 1932 did not fundamentally affect Britain's paramountcy. In the initial phase, between June 1940 and February 1941, a British army under General Archibald Wavell beat back an offensive by Italian forces under Marshal Rodolfo Graziani and advanced into Cyrenaica. The British, the French, and the Soviet Union departed from many parts of the Middle East during and after World War II (1939–1945). On 26 July, Nasser, infuriated by the withdrawal of an offer by the United States, Britain, and the World Bank to finance the construction of a new dam at Aswan, announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company, which operated the canal. In others, they established mutually beneficial alliances with minorities—as with the Jews in Palestine for a time. As a kind of consolation prize, the British arranged for his "election" by cooperative Mesopotamian notables as king of Iraq. At the same time, as part of the price of persuading Italy to enter the war on the Allied side, Britain agreed in the Treaty of London that, in a postwar carve-up of the Ottoman dominions, Italy would receive southwest Anatolia. The Falklands War broke out in 1982 because the United Kingdom and Argentina claimed sovereignty over the islands. Organized by a Cairo-based group of British Middle East experts known as the Arab Bureau, the revolt began in June 1916. The tide was reversed: the British were routed from Libya, and the British garrison at Tobruk was besieged and captured. This meeting set out broad lines of British administration in the Middle East that were to endure for the next decade. Tales of Empire. Britain's patronage of the Hashimites was dealt a blow in 1925 when Sharif Husayn was driven out of the Hijaz by the resurgent Wahhabi army of Ibn Saʿud, ruler of Najd. In spite of pressure, at first private and discreet, later public and emphatic, from the British and other western governments, the Iranian theocracy proclaimed itself unable to rescind the decree even after Khomeini's death in 1989. Egyptian nationalists, chafing under what was seen as continued behind-the-scenes British influence, demanded the renegotiation of the Anglo–Egyptian treaty of 1936 and the closing of British bases. First, the cabinet refused to commit British forces until the approval of the U.S. government had been secured. In the Sudan, the Christian population in the south retained some links with the Church of England, but the University of Khartoum (formerly Gordon College) no longer looked to the English university system as a model. London: Cass, 1986. An initial naval attempt to force the Dardanelles was easily repulsed. Italian Somaliland was returned to Italy as a UN trusteeship in 1950. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. False assumptions pervade the media, such as that UK policy in the Middle East is based on support for democracy and human rights. With pro-Vichy forces in control of Syria and Lebanon, British power throughout the Fertile Crescent seemed for a moment on the verge of toppling. In the hope of constructing a bulwark against Soviet subversion and of limiting the growth of anti-Western influences in the region, Britain and the United States had proposed in October 1951 the creation of the Middle East Defense Organization. hijaz; In 1961, when Kuwait, hitherto a British protectorate, secured independence, the military regime in Iraq threatened a takeover of the oil-rich principality. Encyclopedia.com. For all these reasons, the Middle East occupied a central position in the history of British external relations in the twentieth century. The British reacted firmly. In November 1942, the critical battle of the campaign was fought against Rommel at al-Alamayn by the British Eighth Army under General Bernard Montgomery. Both myths exercised a powerful subliminal influence on Anglo–Arab attitudes over the next generation. The sudden huge increase in the price of oil and the restriction of supply by the oil producers' cartel, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), were the major causes of the stagflation that afflicted Britain in the mid-1970s. But in May, a small British force from the Habbaniya air base moved into Baghdad. The initial impetus toward deeper British involvement in the Middle East arose from the entry of the Ottoman Empire into World War I on the side of the Central Powers at the end of October 1914. The supreme crisis of British power in the Middle East came later that year, appropriately at the focal point of Britain's interests in the region and the reason d'être of its presence there—the Suez Canal. nasser, gamal abdel; mcmahon, henry; This article is more than 6 years old . Britain shares broadly the same interests as other Western countries regarding the Middle East: maintaining the flow of oil, combating radical forces and preventing them from threatening regional stability or Britain itself with a lethal combination of terrorism and WMD. In November 1955, British troops withdrew from the Sudan as the country moved toward full independence in January 1956. The failure to attract Arab members was seen as a further sign of the decline of British authority in the region. The continuing fallout from the Arab uprisings, currently centred on events in Syria and Yemen, is one recent reminder. Sadly part at least of the root of the continuing troubles. The dismissal of "Glubb Pasha" was generally regarded as the end of an era and a telling sign of the decline of British influence. The "Eastern question" in its traditional form terminated abruptly, and a new phase began in which the Allied powers struggled over the postwar partition of the Ottoman Empire among themselves. Churchill's preoccupation with the Mediterranean led him up some blind alleys. In 1917, however, the advance resumed under General Edmund Henry Allenby who entered Jerusalem in triumph in December 1917. . The miners' strike ushered in a bitter confrontation with the Conservative government of Heath, which called a general election on the issue in February 1974 and narrowly lost to the Labour Party. Such personal predilections, however, could not overcome the larger forces shaping events. In March 1957, a nationalist government in Jordan abrogated the Anglo–Jordanian Treaty. Under this arrangement, Abdullah was established as amir of Transjordan; the territory was to form part of the British mandate over Palestine without, however, being open to Jewish settlement. Scottish and U.S. prosecutors sought to secure the extradition of two Libyan citizens suspected of responsibility for planting the bomb. THE LITERARY WORK In Jordan, the royal court and the army maintained intimate links with Britain and copied British styles. Britain and France were humiliatingly obliged to agree to a cease-fire, and by Christmas they had withdrawn their forces from Egypt. Hurewitz, J. C. The Middle East and North Africa in World Politics, 2d edition. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/britain-and-middle-east-1914-present, "Britain and the Middle East from 1914 to the Present On 5 November, the two powers landed paratroops. In October 1954, Britain had promised to withdraw all its force from the canal zone by mid-1956. Compelled to accept realities, the British quickly came to terms with Ibn Saʿud. Its politics and international relations have also occupied a central place in the history of this journal, reflecting both the importance of British interests in the Middle East and the significance of the region in international relations more generally. He tried repeatedly to draw Turkey into the war on the Allied side but without success. Apart from this colony, the relationships of Britain and the Middle East were guarded by special treaties of friendship, by protectorate, or in the years after the First World War, by mandate. A Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil and the decline of British influence led to a growing American interest in the region. Wilson, Mary. faisal i ibn hussein; New York: St. Martin's, 1991. In 1927, they signed a treaty with him that recognized his sovereignty over the Hijaz and, as a result, his leading position among native rulers in the Arabian Peninsula. T. E. Lawrence acted at the conference as adviser to Amir Faisal, who conformed to British desires in all matters—even to the extent of making friendly gestures toward Zionism. In the absence of Egyptian acquiescence, British and French planes began bombing Egyptian military targets on 31 October. league of arab states; The new Turkish regime signed the Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923, giving up any claim to the Ottoman Empire's former Arab provinces—but holding on to the Turkish, Kurdish, and former Armenian regions of Anatolia. Britain did not seek territorial acquisition in the Middle East in World War II. Learn more about the British … With the growth of aviation as well as sea traffic, the need for a string of secure air bases was seen as vital. Megiddo and to conquer Syria. They were joined by France, which had its own reasons for opposing the Nasser regime on account of Egypt's support of Algerian rebels. Elsewhere, they combined these policies with patronage of dynastic rulers, particularly with the family of Sharif Husayn. Although Britain played only a secondary role in the war, the crisis lit a slow-burning fuse in British internal politics in the shape of a scandal concerning the authorization of earlier British arms sales to Iraq. The British government saw little advantage in taking over the unfer-tile hollow of the Fertile Crescent. In Jordan, the young King Hussein ibn Talal, educated at Harrow and Sandhurst, became the most pro-British of postwar Middle East rulers. In some cases, diffusion of responsibility led to conflict between departments: Palestine, over which the colonial and foreign offices clashed repeatedly, was a case in point. Ibn Saʿud, too, remained neutral until the last moment, though he received handsome subsidies from the British and the United States and made some gestures of support for the Allied cause. Henceforth, except in times of crisis, the British did not maintain a large standing army in any part of the Middle East except at the strategically vital Suez. The ultimate goal behind the first two objectives was to secure and protect sea and land routes to India, which was becoming increasingly vital both to Britain's economy and to its imperial psyche. By May 1943, the Germans and Italians had been cleared out of northern Africa. A first step was the decision in December 1952 to move the Middle East headquarters of the British armed forces from Egypt to Cyprus. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. The effort to ride the tiger, however, had only limited success; the British soon found that Arab nationalism turned strongly against them. (France, where there was a strong pressure group on behalf of Roman Catholic interests in Syria, was very different.). Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. More and more, British Crisis in the Middle East and the Growth of Arab Nationalism . Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. As the region unravels, it is worth noting that negotiations between the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany) and Iran on the latter’s nuclear programme have been extended for another four months beyond the original 20 July deadline. Draw Turkey into the war, the region Wilson government abandon pretensions world-power. Absence of Egyptian acquiescence, British and American, not old British, influence jingoistic... Made its own design on the island, ” Gurel told Middle East Eye down by General Arnold Wilson!, could not overcome the larger forces shaping events, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press,.! 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